Notes

1.    Claude Lévi-Strauss, "La geste d'Asdiwal," in: Annuaire d'École pratique des hautes études (Section des sciences religieuses) Paris, 1958, pp. 3-43.

2.    Franz Boas, ed., Publications of the American Ethnological Society, vol. 3, Leyden (E.J. Brill) 1912, pp. 71-145.

3.    The residue of these contrast that will survive the desolation of famine are shown underscored.

4.    The women's simultaneous transhumant movements take place in winter when the Tsimshian were actually sedentary, and they end in an upriver location proper for early autumnal dwelling in temporary shelters in the wilderness. But early fall was a time of abundant food, not the late winter famine described in the story.

5.    The contrast between village and wilderness might automatically seem geographic to a European mind, but in the story of Asdiwal it is primarily economic in that wilderness was where all food and other substances of economic value were obtained, whereas village was the locus of the consumption and other utilization of such materials.

6.    By their reunion, the two women achieve the first stage in rebuilding society, for together they constitute the most elementary social set that includes more than one generation: parent and child.

7.    The text of the Theogony quoted here and throughout is Friedrich Solmsen's edition in Hesiodi: Theogonia; Opera et Dies; Scutum, Oxford (Clarendon Press), 1970.

8.    For further information about Tartaros in the Theogony, see M. L. West, Hesiod: Theogony, Oxford (Clarendon Press), 1988, pp. 193-5.

9.    For further information about Eros in the Theogony, see again M. L. West, ibid., pp. 195-6.

10.    The only possible exceptions are several sterile females: the (four?) Hesperides (Daughters of Evening) referred to in Theogony v. 215, and the three Moirai named in v. 218 (Klotho, Lachesis, and Atropos). These arguably have some corporeal substance, however otiose. Yet apart from watching the golden apples, the Hesperides did nothing in ancient Greek mythology but sing. Thus they were strictly audio-visual beings, completely and exclusively taken up with intangible stimuli to the senses of sight and hearing. For their part, the three named Moirai have been widely regarded as interpolations who do not rightly belong in the catalogue of Night's children at all. But even if one accepts the corporeality of all the named Moirai and the Hesperides alike, their functions and capacities are still perfectly congruous with those of their mother and grandmother, Night and Chaos. No less than did their ancestresses, they too only set terms and conditions within which the substantive and materially productive forms of life and being operate; they themselves never contribute to the developing cosmos anything that is material in either nature or effect.

11.    Hesiod seems to have thought that mankind is sprung from Gaia's children, the Meliai, (Nymphs of) Ash Trees. See Theogony vv. 187 and 563; Works and Days v. 145.

12.    I am grateful to Dr. Charles P. Lyman, quondam Curator of Mammalogy in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University, for his expert advise about North American bears.

13.    Here and throughout I use the text of the Odyssey in: Thomas W. Allen, ed., Homeri: Opera, volume 3, Oxford (Clarendon Press), 1917.

14.    I have been stimulated by A. B. Lord's consideration of Odysseus' Wanderings in his article "Tradition and the Oral Poet: Homer, Huso, and Avdo MeÄ‘edović," in La Poesia epica e la sua formazione, Quaderno N. 139, Roma (Accademia nazionale dei Lincei), 1970, pp. 13-28. I have consciously wanted to diverge from Lord's analysis only in attempting to discriminate between the places visited in the Wanderings and Odysseus' actual landings, thinking as I do that these two superimposed schemes serve somewhat different conceptual purposes.

15.    Apollodorus, Bibliotheke I, 52; Ovid, Metamorphoses XI, 302-313.

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